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Micah Fomichev
Micah Fomichev

Quaid e Azam k 14 Nukat in Urdu: The Key Demands of the Muslim League


14nukatinurdu: What You Need to Know About Quaid-e-Azam's 14 Points




If you are interested in the history of Pakistan and its founder Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, you might have come across the term 14nukatinurdu. This is a Urdu phrase that means "14 points" and refers to the political manifesto that Jinnah presented in 1929 as the leader of the All-India Muslim League. The 14 points were a set of constitutional demands that aimed to secure the rights and interests of the Muslims in India, who were facing discrimination and oppression by the British colonial rule and the Hindu-dominated Indian National Congress.




14nukatinurdu


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In this article, we will explain what are the 14nukatinurdu, what was their historical background, and why they are important for understanding the Pakistan Movement and the creation of Pakistan.


The Historical Background of 14nukatinurdu




The 14nukatinurdu were a response to the Nehru Report, which was a constitutional draft prepared by a committee of Indian National Congress leaders led by Motilal Nehru in 1928. The Nehru Report proposed a unitary and secular form of government for India, with no separate representation or safeguards for the Muslims or other minorities. It also rejected the demands of the Muslim League such as separate electorates for Muslims, one-third representation for Muslims in the Central Legislature, protection for minorities through veto power or weightage system, separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency, constitutional reforms for North West Frontier Province and Baluchistan, etc.


The Muslim League rejected the Nehru Report as unacceptable and unfair to the Muslims, who constituted about one-fourth of India's population at that time. They feared that their identity, culture, religion, and interests would be threatened by a Hindu-majority India. They demanded that any future constitution of India should be based on the principle of federalism, with maximum autonomy for the provinces and adequate protection for the rights and interests of the Muslims and other minorities.


Jinnah, who was then known as an ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity and a moderate leader, tried to negotiate with the Congress leaders to find a middle ground. However, he was disappointed by their rigid attitude and lack of sincerity. He realized that the Congress was not willing to accommodate the Muslim aspirations and that there was a need for a separate platform for the Muslims to voice their grievances and demands. He decided to formulate his own constitutional scheme that would reflect the Muslim point of view and serve as a basis for negotiations with the Congress and the British government.


The Main Features of 14nukatinurdu




Jinnah presented his 14 points in a meeting of the All-India Muslim League Council on March 28, 1929. The points were based on principles such as federalism, provincial autonomy, communal representation, separate electorates, religious liberty, etc. The main features of 14nukatinurdu were as follows:


  • The form of the future constitution should be federal, with residuary powers vested in the provinces.



  • A uniform measure of autonomy should be granted to all provinces.



  • All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies should be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.



  • In the Central Legislature, Muslim representation should not be less than one-third.



  • Representation of communal groups should continue to be by means of separate electorates as at present: provided it shall be open to any community, at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favour of joint electorate.



  • Any territorial redistribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority in Punjab, Bengal and North West Frontier Province.



  • Full religious liberty, i.e., liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities.



No bill or resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if three-fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose it as being injurious to the interests of that community or in


the alternative,


such other method is devised


as may be found feasible


and practicable


  • to deal with such cases.



  • Sindh should be separated from Bombay Presidency.



Reforms should be introduced in North West Frontier Province


and Baluchistan


on


the same footing


as


  • in other provinces.



Provision should be made


in


the constitution


giving Muslims


an adequate share


along with other Indians


in all services


of state


and


in local self-governing bodies


having due regard


  • to qualifications.



Adequate safeguards should be provided


for Muslims


in all matters relating to taxation


  • and expenditure.



  • No cabinet either central or provincial should be formed without there being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim ministers.



  • No change shall be made in the constitution by Central Legislature except with concurrence of States constituting Indian Federation.



The Significance of 14nukatinurdu




The 14nukatinurdu were a landmark document in the history of Pakistan Movement and the creation of Pakistan. They had several significance such as:


  • They represented the first comprehensive constitutional scheme for India from a Muslim perspective.



  • They articulated the minimum demands of the Muslims that they were not willing to compromise on.



  • They challenged the claim of Congress to represent all Indians and asserted Muslim identity and nationalism.



  • They united Muslims under one banner and gave them a clear direction and vision for their political struggle.



  • They influenced subsequent constitutional developments such as Round Table Conferences (1930-32), Communal Award (1932), Government of India Act (1935), Pakistan Resolution (1940), etc.



The 14nukatinurdu were not accepted by Congress or British government at that time. However,


they laid down


the foundation


for


the demand


of


a separate homeland


for


the Muslims


of


India,


which was eventually realized


in


the form


of


Pakistan


in


1947.


The Reaction to 14nukatinurdu




The 14nukatinurdu were not well received by the Congress or the British government. The Congress rejected them as impractical and divisive, and accused Jinnah of trying to sabotage the national movement. The British government also ignored them and did not invite Jinnah to the Round Table Conferences that were held in London from 1930 to 1932 to discuss the future constitution of India. The Conferences resulted in the Communal Award, which granted separate electorates and reserved seats for Muslims and other minorities, but also introduced a system of weightage that reduced Muslim representation in some provinces. Jinnah was dissatisfied with the Communal Award and joined hands with other Muslim leaders to oppose it.


The 14nukatinurdu also faced criticism from some nationalist Muslims who favored a united India and cooperation with Congress. They argued that Jinnah's demands were unrealistic and would only create more communal tension and violence. They also questioned Jinnah's authority and legitimacy to speak on behalf of all Muslims. Some of these critics were Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, who was a prominent scholar and leader of Congress; Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, who was a Pashtun activist and leader of Khudai Khidmatgar (Servants of God) movement; and Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, who was a journalist and leader of Khilafat movement.


The Legacy of 14nukatinurdu




The 14nukatinurdu may have failed to achieve their immediate objective of securing constitutional reforms or political settlement with Congress, but they had a lasting impact on the history of Pakistan Movement and the creation of Pakistan. They had several legacy such as:


  • They marked the beginning of Jinnah's transformation from a moderate leader to a staunch advocate of Muslim separatism and nationalism.



  • They established the Muslim League as the sole representative of the Muslims of India and increased its popularity and membership among the masses.



  • They inspired subsequent constitutional developments such as Pakistan Resolution (1940), which demanded a separate state for Muslims; Lahore Resolution (1946), which endorsed the Cabinet Mission Plan for a federal India with grouping of provinces; Direct Action Day (1946), which resulted in widespread communal riots and violence; Partition Plan (1947), which accepted the division of India into two independent dominions of India and Pakistan.



  • They influenced the constitution-making process of Pakistan after its independence in 1947. The Objectives Resolution (1949), which laid down the guiding principles for Pakistan's constitution, incorporated some of the features of 14nukatinurdu such as federalism, provincial autonomy, Islamic provisions, etc.



The 14nukatinurdu were a landmark document in the history of Pakistan Movement and the creation of Pakistan. They reflected Jinnah's vision and leadership for securing Muslim rights and interests in India. They also represented the aspirations and sentiments of millions of Muslims who supported Jinnah's cause and followed his call for Pakistan.


Conclusion




The 14nukatinurdu were a political manifesto that Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah presented in 1929 as the leader of the All-India Muslim League. They were a set of constitutional demands that aimed to secure the rights and interests of the Muslims in India, who were facing discrimination and oppression by the British colonial rule and the Hindu-dominated Indian National Congress. The 14nukatinurdu were based on principles such as federalism, provincial autonomy, communal representation, separate electorates, religious liberty, etc.


The 14nukatinurdu were not accepted by Congress or British government at that time. However, they laid down the foundation for the demand of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India, which was eventually realized in the form of Pakistan in 1947. They also marked the beginning of Jinnah's transformation from a moderate leader to a staunch advocate of Muslim separatism and nationalism. They established the Muslim League as the sole representative of the Muslims of India and increased its popularity and membership among the masses. They influenced subsequent constitutional developments such as Pakistan Resolution (1940), Lahore Resolution (1946), Partition Plan (1947), etc. They also influenced the constitution-making process of Pakistan after its independence in 1947.


The 14nukatinurdu were a landmark document in the history of Pakistan Movement and the creation of Pakistan. They reflected Jinnah's vision and leadership for securing Muslim rights and interests in India. They also represented the aspirations and sentiments of millions of Muslims who supported Jinnah's cause and followed his call for Pakistan. 4e3182286b


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